10. MILITARIZATION OF NAZI ORGANIZATIONS

A. The Nazi conspirators placed many of their organizations on a progressively militarized footing with a view to the rapid transformation and use of such organizations as instruments of war.

(1) The Schutzstaffeln (SS). The SS was militarized beginning in March 1933, when special, volunteer, armed units were created consisting of full-time garrisoned troops. These units, which rapidly grew in strength, were a part neither of the Wehrmacht, nor of the police, but were exclusively at the disposal of the Fuehrer. This militarization of the SS was in accordance with Nazi policy. (For documentation and further discussion see Chapter XV, Section 5.)

(2) The Sturmabteilung (SA). The SA was founded in 1921 as a para-military organization to fight political enemies of the Nazis. After the accession of the Nazis to power, the Sa was used to provide pre-military training at a time when the Reichswehr was legally limited to a strength of 100,000 men. Thus the SA, from its inception, had a military purpose, which was carried out and gradually increased in scope. (For documentation and further discussion see Chapter XV, Section 4.)

(3) The Hitler Jugend (HJ). One of the chief purposes of the Hitler Jugend was to provide for military training of German youth at a very early age. As early as 1933, the HJ entered into a secret program of extensive pre-military training for German youth in conjunction with the SA and the Wehrmacht. In addition to general military training members of the HJ were given specialized training in various types of military units, such as flying units, naval units, motorized units, signal units, etc. (For documentation and further discussion, see Section 8, supra.)

(4) The National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK). The original NSKK was founded under the name of NSAK (National Socialist Automobile Corps) on 1 April 1930 by Hitler, who joined as its first member. By the end of 1931 it had a membership of approximately 10,000, as compared to 300 at the beginning of that year (2804-PS). In 1934 the motorized Hitler Jugend and the motorized SA were placed under the NSKK.

Hitler, on 23 August of that year, decreed that:

"the NSAK and the motorized SA are from now on welded together into a unit called NSKK. The NSKK is directly Thus the NSKK was elevated to the position of an independent affiliated unit of the NSDAP, similar to the SA and the SS. The membership of the enlarged NSKK grew rapidly.

The military purpose of the NSKK is evident from the following statement from the Organization buch der NSDAP (1940):

"The young driver who has received his training in the six-week courses of the NSKK will be well prepared in body and spirit when the time comes for his military service, and will wear with pride the dress of the Armed Forces of the Nation." (2320-B-PS)

The program of militarization proceeded rapidly:

"More than one-third of all leaders and men of the NSKK, which had in the meantime gown to a membership of 350,000, were already active in the fight for power * * * Thus, the NSKK had in its ranks, in addition to the proud tradition of the period of our fight, also that of the World War. This front spirit and experience of a generation matured to manhood in the barrages, in the battles of attrition, in the battles of the Freikorps, and in the heroic fight of National Socialism for Germany's rebirth, is passed on to our youth as a sacred heritage." (2804-PS)

The training given to NSKK members was intended to furnish seasoned recruits for the Nazi military forces.

"Military motorized training of our youth is the cardinal task of the educational work of the NSKK. Here it collaborates most closely with the bearer of the arms of the Reich, the Wehrmacht, and it has done so already throughout the years before the seizure of power. The demands and needs of the Army, which continuously grew in scope after the awakening of our Nation and after our regained military freedom also caused the tasks and the work of the NSKK in the field of military motorized training to grow correspondingly * * * By order of the Fuehrer and Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht, the NSKK has been given charge of the pre-military training of the entire young reserve of the motorized troop units of our Army in addition to post-military training." (2804-PS)

NSKK-trained men were intended to be assimilated into Reich panzer units.

"Well prepared physically and spiritually, the young German man who has now become a motorized soldier, can serve with a motorized or partially-motorized unit of the Army. To become a tank soldier is his only ambition." (2804-PS)

The NSKK was actually used for military purposes.

"The men of the NSKK have considerably contributed to the liberation of the Sudetenland by the Fuehrer and have thus gained undying merit, not only for the Germans in the Sudetenland, but for the entire German people as a whole." (2804-PS)

Further evidence of actual military use of the NSKK is given in the following passage from "Deutschland im Kampf" written by Ministerialdirigent A. J. Berndt of the Reich Propaganda Ministry and Lt. Col. von Wedel of the German Army High Command, in the issue of June 1940:

"The NSKK is playing a decisive part in the carrying out of considerable war-important tasks on the Inner Front, one of which is traffic. Among the tasks of the NSKK are pre-military training, education, and schooling and motorized transport. Thus, for instance, the conducting of the entire transport system of the TODT Organization on the West Wall and the traffic in the Western War Theater are in the hands of the NSKK." (2810-PS)

(5) The National Socialist Aviation Corps (NSFK). The NSFK was another organization affiliated with the NSDAP used by the Nazi conspirators for military purposes. It was the great training school for the Luftwaffe.

"In the endeavor to assure for the German Luftwaffe a numerically strong and wall prepared reserve, and to strengthen in the German people the conviction that Germany must retain its head-start in all spheres of aviation, the NSFK was founded by the Fuehrer on 17 April 1937 * * *.

"The NSFK at the time of its creation, was given the following tasks by the Reichsmarshal:

"1. Pre-military aviation training of the new blood for the Luftwaffe.

"2. The keeping in training of the reservists of the aviation troops.

"3. The combining and directing of all German air sports.

"4. Promotion and extension of the aviation idea among the German people.

"These tasks are so great that the cooperation of tens of thousands of active members in necessary to make carrying them out possible, so that the Luftwaffe may be able at any time to count on their fulfillment according to plan." (2811-PS)

The paramount military purpose of the NSFK is clearly indicated in the following admission by Generalleutnant Friedrich Christiansen, Korpsfuehrer of the NSFK:

"Schooled in Character, trained physically as a flier, and as a soldier, the member-to-be of the Luftwaffe leaves the NSFK." (2813-PS)

(6) The Reichsarbeitdienst (RAD) (The Reich Labor Service). The Reich Labor Service was also subverted to military purposes by the Nazi conspirators.

Membership in the RAD was made compulsory for both young men and women on 26 June 1935.

"All young Germans of either sex between 18-25 years of age are obligated to serve their people in the Reich Labor Service. As the Schooling of the Nation, it has as its object this education of the German Youth to National Socialist Ideology.

"The Reich Labor Service for men is, thanks to its military nature, closely-knit units, and its particular education and training an ever-ready, powerful tool of the National Socialist Reich." (2805-PS)

The tens of thousands of members of the RAD were militarily trained and ready for action when Germany launched her campaigns of aggression. Actual military use of the men of the RAD is clearly shown in the 1 June 1943 edition of "Fuehren und Erziehen" (Leadership and Education), the official magazine of the Reich Labor Service. A photograph depicts a Labor Service man repairing a bridge at the front, across which four infantrymen are proceeding, and is titled as follows:

"The young crews who have gone through the educational institutions of the Reich Labor Service today represent the most active nucleus of our Army. * * * Our photograph shows labor men who in the East are preparing the way for infantry shock troops by repairing a bridge. Thus also the men of the Reich Labor Service are today one of the examples of eternal German soldierdom." (2806-PS)

The military uses of the RAD are further described in the following letter written by Goering to Reich Labor Service Leader Konstantin Hierl:

"After the victorious termination of the campaign in Poland, I cannot but convey to you my sincere thanks fro and unreserved recognition of the help rendered by the Reich Labor Service in the carrying out of the operations of the Luftwaffe. In guarding Army airfields, in clearing and quickly repairing former enemy airports, in road construction and in bringing up supplies, everywhere your men have done a real job and have thus contributed considerably to the successes of the German Luftwaffe." (2807-PS)

(7) The TODT Organization (OT). The TODT organization, or OT, was another NSDAP affiliate used to further the militaristic aims of the Nazi conspirators. The OT, originally an offshoot of the RAD, was created as a separate entity in June 1938 when Dr. Fritz Todt was charged with the construction of the Siegfried Line or West Wall. The military employment of the OT is clearly shown in the following passage from "Manner dr OT": which was published by the Photographic office of the Reich Propaganda Office:

" No sooner had the greatest and most modern fortifications of the world, the West Wall, been completed by the workers of the OT, when these very same workers were called upon by the Fuehrer to prove their worth also in direct front service * * * and they thus helped * * * to achieve the greatest victory in history. When the great offensive in the west began, the brown workers' columns of the TODT organization followed immediately behind them. After the armistice with France had been signed, an entirely new situation developed for the TODT organization. Its columns had pushed deep into enemy country. Not seldom did they have direct contact with the enemy- their losses in deed and wounded and the Iron Cross awards are heroic proof of that. While, as the foremost construction workers of the German Reich, they had already proved their worth when building the West Wall, they were now able to perfect what they had learned in the fight against the British world enemy. From the Channel coast to the Atlantic Ocean, the front technicians and front workers of the OT now proceeded to create the prerequisites for a successful fight against England". (2808-PS)

Though the OT was in its origin technically a civilian organization, its subsequently became a para-military body which, before and during the war, cooperated fully with the German Army. On 2 July 1940, a directive was issued from the German High Command appointing a liaison officer.

"* * * to establish the closest liaison and cooperation of the respective military offices with the main construction work of the TODT Organization." (2812-PS)

This militarization of the OT is further shown in the following passage from "Nationalsozialistische Monatscheffte" for 1942:

"From the Autobahn workers was developed the 'Organization TODT' a body of hundreds of thousands of workers who help the Wehrmacht everywhere in eliminating obstacles, building bridges and erecting fortifications and shelters. The front soldier and the front worker stand side by side. Together they have shed their blood in this war and together they have won victories. Long-range guns on the Channel coast, U-boat bases on the Atlantic, and now the East will render theft' immortal for all times to come." (2809-PS)

A letter from Fritz Sauckel to Hitler, dated 17 May 1943, states that the OT had supplied 248,200 workers by March 1943 for the completion of the Atlantic Wall, and praises the OT for its excellent work in this regard. (407-VIII-PS)

By 1938, all phases of German life had been mobilized for the accomplishment of militant aims.

Hitler declared to the Reichstag on 20 February 1938:

"Only now we have succeeded in setting before us the great tasks and in possessing the material things which are the prerequisites for the realization of great creative plans in all fields of our national existence. Thus, National Socialism has made up within a few years for what centuries before it had omitted. * * *

"National Socialism has given the German people that leadership which as party not only mobilizes the nation but also organizes it, so that on the basis of the natural principle of selection, the continuance of a stable political leadership is safeguarded forever * * * National Socialism * * * possesses Germany entirely and completely since the day when, five years ago, I left the house in Wilhelmplatz as Reich Chancellor. There is no institution in this state which is not National Socialist. Above all, however, the National Socialist Party in these five years not only has made the nation National Socialist, but also has given itself that perfect organizational structure which guarantees its permanence for all future. The greatest guarantee of the National Socialist revolution lies in the complete domination of the Reich and all its institutions and organizations, internally and externally, by the National Socialist Party. Its protection against the world abroad, however, lies in its new National Socialist armed forces. * * *

"In this Reich, anybody who has a responsible position is a National Socialist. * * * Every institution of this Reich is under the orders of the supreme political leadership. * * * The party leads the Reich politically, the armed forces defend it militarily. * * * There is nobody in any responsible position in this state who doubts that I am the authorized leader of this Reich." (2715-PS)

LEGAL REFERENCES AND LIST OF DOCUMENTS RELATING TO MILITARIZATION OF NAZI ORGANIZATIONS

Document Description Vol. Page

Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Article 6, especially 6 (a)......I 5

International Military Tribunal, Indictment Number 1, Section IV (D) 3 (f).......I 21

Note: A single asterisk (*) before a document indicates that the document was received in evidence at the Nurnberg trial. A double asterisk (**) before a document number indicates that the document was referred to during the trial but was not formally received in evidence, for the reason given in parentheses following the description of the document. The USA series number, given in parentheses following the description of the document, is the official exhibit number assigned by the court.

*407-VIII-PS Telegram from Sauckel to Hitler, 17 May 1943, concerning foreign labor. (USA 210)......III 394

2320-B-PS Extracts from Organization Book of NSDAP, 1940, p. 394......IV 1026

*2715-PS Speech by Hitler to the Reichstag on 20 February 1938, published in The Archive, February 1938, Vol. 47, pp. 1441-1442. (USA 331)......V 376

2804-PS Extracts from "Das NSKK" by Hans Helmut Krenzlein, NSKK Gruppenfuehrer, with foreword by Leader of NSKK, Korpsfuehrer A. Heuhnlein......V 446

2805-PS Extract from Organization Book of NSDAP, 1943, p. 465......V 447

2806-PS Extract from Leadership and Education, official magazine of Dutch Labor Service, 1 June 1943, p. 19.....V 448

2807-PS Letter by Goering to Reich Labor Service Leader Konstantin Hirel, published by National Socialist Monthly, 1940, Vol. I, p. 155.....V 448

2808-PS Men of the OT, published by Photographic Office of Reich Propaganda Office......V 448

2809-PS Extract from National Socialist Monthly, February-March, 1492, p. 167......V 449

2810-PS Extract from Germany in Battle, by Berndt of Reich Propaganda Ministry and von Wedel of German Army High Command, 1940, p. 107....V 449

2811-PS Extracts from Organization Book of the NSDAP, 1938, pp. 470, 470(c).....V 450

2812-PS directive from German Army High Command, published in General Army Bulletin, 1940, Vol. VII, p. 96.....V 450

2813-PS Extract from The National Socialist Air Corps, p. 14.......V 451

*3054-PS "The Nazi Plan", script of a motion picture composed of captured German film. (USA 167).....V 801